All peer reviewed publications pertaining to Childsmile are listed in the publications log. Selected publications are listed below.

Please note that some of these published papers may not be freely available. You may only have access to Abstract - a fee or subscription may be necessary to view the full article. You may be able to get a copy through an NHS library - search for an NHS library by health board (external link).


Childsmile after 10 Years. Part 1: Background, theory and principles (external site).
Macpherson LMD, Rodgers J, Conway DI.
Dental Update 2019; 46: 113-116.

Childsmile after 10 Years. Part 2: Programme development, implementation and evaluation.
Macpherson LMD, Rodgers J, Conway DI.
Dental Update 2019; 46:238-246.


The effectiveness of Dental Health Support Workers at linking families with primary care dental practices: a population-wide data linkage cohort study (external site).
Hodgins F, Sherriff A, Gnich W, Ross AJ, Macpherson LMD.
BMC Oral Health, 2018, 18:191

A mixed-methods feasibility study protocol to assess the communication behaviours within the dental health professional-parent-child triad in a general dental practice setting (external site).
Yuan S, Humphris G, Ross A, Macpherson L, Zhou Y, Freeman R.
Pilot and Feasibility Studies 2018, 4:136.

The effect of introducing a financial incentive to promote application of fluoride varnish in dental practice in Scotland: a natural experiment (external link).
Wendy Gnich, Andrea Sherriff, Debbie Bonetti, David I. Conway and Lorna M. D. Macpherson
Implementation Science 2018 13:95

A systems approach using the functional resonance analysis method to support fluoride varnish application for children attending general dental practice (external link).
A.Ross, A.Sherriff, J. Kidd, W. Gnich, J. Anderson, L. Deas, L. Macpherson.
Applied Ergonomics 68 (2018) 294–303


Linking routinely collected social work, education, and health data to enable monitoring of the health and healthcare of school aged children in state care ('looked after children') in Scotland: a national demonstration project (external site).
Clark D, King A, Sharpe K, Connelly G, Elliott L, Macpherson LMD, McMahon AD, Milligan I, Wilson P, Conway DI, Wood R.
Public Health 2017. 150: 101-111.

Inequalities in the dental health needs and access to dental services amongst Looked After Children in Scotland: a population data-linkage study (external site).
McMahon AD, Elliott L, Macpherson LMD, Sharpe KH, Connelly G, Milligan I, Wilson P, Clark D, King A, Wood R, Conway DI.
Archives of Disease in Childhood 2017;0:1–5.

Linking families with pre-school children from healthcare services to community resources: a systematic review protocol (external link).
J. Burns, D.I. Conway, W. Gnich and L.M.D. Macpherson.
Systematic Reviews 2017 6:50


How lay health workers tailor in effective health behaviour change interventions: a protocol for a systematic review (external link).
F. Hodgins, W. Gnich, A.J. Ross, A. Sherriff and H. Worlledge-Andrew.
Systematic Reviews 2016 5:102

Patient-, organization-, and system-level barriers and facilitators to preventive oral health care: a convergent mixed-methods study in primary dental care (external link).
A.R. Templeton, L. Young, A. Bish, W. Gnich, H. Cassie, S. Treweek, D. Bonetti, D. Stirling, L. Macpherson, S. McCann, J. Clarkson, C .Ramsay and the PMC study team.
Implementation Science, Volume 11, Number 5. January 2016.


Comparison of the caries-protective effect of fluoride varnish with treatment as usual in nursery school attendees receiving preventive oral health support through the Childsmile oral health improvement programme — The Protecting Teeth@3 Study: a randomised controlled trial (external site).
Wright W, Turner S, Anopa Y, McIntosh E, Wu O, Conway DI, Macpherson LMD, McMahon AD.
BMC Oral Health 2015. 15:160.

Childsmile: The Child Oral Health Improvement Programme in Scotland (external link).
L.M.D. Macpherson, G.E. Ball, P. King, K. Chalmers and W. Gnich.
Primary Dental Journal, Volume 4, Number 4, pp 33-37. November 2015.

Improving Child Oral Health: Cost Analysis of a National Nursery Toothbrushing Programme (external link).
Y. Anopa, A.D. McMahon, D.I. Conway, G.E. Ball, E. McIntosh and L.M.D. Macpherson.
PLOS One, Volume 10, Number 8. August 2015.

Elimination of ‘the Glasgow effect’ in levels of dental caries in Scotland’s five-year-old children: 10 cross-sectional surveys (1994–2012) (external link).
Y.I. Blair, A.D. McMahon, W. Gnich, D.I. Conway and L.M.D. Macpherson.
BMC Public Health, Volume 15, Number 212. March 2015.

Use of the theoretical domains framework to further understanding of what influences application of fluoride varnish to children's teeth: a national survey of general dental practitioners in Scotland (external link).
W. Gnich, D. Bonetti, A. Sherriff, S. Sharma, D.I. Conway and L.M.D. Macpherson.
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, Volume 43, Number 3, pp 272 - 281. February, 2015.


Extending dental nurses’ duties: a national survey investigating skill-mix in Scotland’s child oral health improvement programme (Childsmile) (external link).
W. Gnich, L. Deas, S. Mackenzie, J. Burns & D.I. Conway.
BMC Oral Health, Volume 14, Number 137. November, 2014.


Applying an ecological model to social marketing communications (external link).
A. Lindridge, S. MacAskill, W. Gnich, D. Eadie and I. Holme.
European Journal of Marketing, Volume 49, Number 9, pp 1399-1420. 2013.

Intelligent policy making? Key actors' perspectives on the development and implementation of an early years' initiative in Scotland's public health arena (external link).
L. Deas, L. Mattu and W. Gnich.
Social Science and Medicine, Volume 96, pp 1-8. November, 2013.

Can programme theory be used as a 'translational tool’ to optimise health service delivery in a national early years’ initiative in Scotland: a case study (external link).
J. Eaves and W. Gnich.
BMC Health Services Research, Volume 13, Number 425. October, 2013.

Effectiveness and reach of a directed-population approach to improving dental health and reducing inequalities: a cross sectional study (external link).
L. Brewster, A. Sherriff and L. Macpherson.
BMC Public Health, Volume 13, Number 778. August 2013

Comparison and Relative Utility of Inequality Measurements: As Applied to Scotland’s Child Dental Health (external link).
Y.I. Blair, A.D. McMahon and L.M.D. Macpherson.
PLOS One, Volume 8, Issue 3. March, 2013.

National Supervised Toothbrushing Program and Dental Decay in Scotland (external link).
L.M.D. Macpherson, Y. Anopa, D.I. Conway and A.D. McMahon.
Journal of Dental Research, Volume 92, Number 2, pp 109 - 113. February, 2013


The behaviour of extended duties dental nurses and the acceptance of fluoride varnish application in preschool children (external link).
Y. Zhou, G.M. Forbes, L.M.D. Macpherson, G.E. Ball and G.M. Humphris.
British Dental Journal, Volume 213, Number 12, pp 603-609. December 2012.

Developing a new self-reported scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5) (external link).
G. Tsakos, Y. Blair, H. Yusuf, W. Wright, R.G. Watt and L.M.D. Macpherson.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Volume 10, Number 62. June, 2012.


Reductions in dental decay in 3-year old children in Greater Glasgow and Clyde: repeated population inspection studies over four years (external link).
A.D. McMahon, Y. Blair, D.R. McCall and L.M.D. Macpherson.
BMC Oral Health, 11:29. 2011.

Systematic review of the effect of dental staff behaviour on child dental patient anxiety and behaviour (external link).
Y. Zhou, E. Cameron, G. Forbes and G. Humphris.
Patient Education and Counseling, Volume 85, Issue 1, pp 4-13.


Childsmile: the national child oral health improvement programme in Scotland. Part 1: establishment and development (external link).
L.M.D. Macpherson, G.E. Ball, L. Brewster, B. Duane, C-L. Hodges, W. Wright, W. Gnich, J. Rodgers, D.R. McCall, S. Turner and D.I. Conway.
British Dental Journal, Volume 209, No 2, pp73 – 78. July, 2010.

Childsmile: the national child oral health improvement programme in Scotland. Part 2: monitoring and delivery (external link).
S. Turner, L. Brewster, J. Kidd, W. Gnich, G. E. Ball, K. Milburn, N. B. Pitts, S. Goold, D. I. Conway and L. M. D. Macpherson.
British Dental Journal, Volume 209, No 2, pp79–83. July, 2010.

Camera-related behaviours of female dental nurses and nursery school children during fluoride application interactions in nursery school settings (external link).
Y. Zhou, G. Forbes and G. Humphris.
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 374 – 381. September, 2010.


‘Tackling Socially Determined Dental Inequalities: Ethical Aspects of Childsmile, the National Child Oral Health Demonstration Programme in Scotland’.
D. Shaw, L. Macpherson and D. Conway.
Bioethics, Volume 23, Number 2, 2009.